The Kingdom of Baguirmi, also known as the Baguirmi Sultanate (1522-1897), was an Islamic kingdom or sultanate that existed as an independent state during the 16th and 17th centuries southeast of Lake Chad in what is now the country of Chad. Baguirmi emerged to the southeast of the Kanem-Bornu Empire. The kingdom's first ruler was Mbang Birni Besse. Later in his reign, the Bornu Empire conquered and made the state a tributary. Under the reign of Abdullah IV (1568-1608), Islam was adopted, and the state became a sultanate, using judicial and administrative procedures. The title of Mbang was still used along with Sultan. Later, a palace and court were constructed in the capital city of Massenya. Baguirmi's political history was a function of its strength and unity in relation to its larger neighbors. Absorbed into Kanem-Bornu during the reign of Alooma, Baguirmi broke free later in the 17th century, only to be returned to tributary status in the mid-18th century.
Contributions by T L Miles, Aldux, and 4shizzal.