Campo Grande is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Center-West region of the country. The city is nicknamed Cidade Morena ('Swarthy City' in Portuguese) because of the reddish-brown colour of the region's soil. It has a population of 796,252, according to a 2011 IBGE estimate, while its metropolitan area is home to 991,420 people (2010). The region where the city is located was in the past a waypoint for travellers who wanted to go from So Paulo or Minas Gerais to northern Mato Grosso by land. In the early 1900s a railway was completed connecting Campo Grande to Corumb, on the Bolivian border, and to Bauru, So Paulo. Also in the beginning of the 20th century, the Western Brazilian Army Headquarters was established in Campo Grande, making it an important military center.
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