Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine) (INN) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. The name comes from 'coca' and the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is a stimulant, an appetite suppressant, and a topical anesthetic. Biologically, cocaine acts as a serotoninnorepinephrinedopamine reuptake inhibitor, also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI). It is addictive because of its effect on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Unlike most molecules, cocaine has pockets with both high hydrophilic and lipophilic efficiency, violating the rule of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. This causes it to cross the bloodbrain barrier far better than other psychoactive chemicals. It is illegal to possess, grow, or distribute cocaine for non-medicinal and non-government-sanctioned purposes in almost every country. Still it is consumed extensively throughout the world. Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant.
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