Crdoba, also called Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Crdoba. An Iberian and Roman city in ancient times, in the Middle Ages it became the capital of an Islamic caliphate. The old town contains numerous architectural reminders of when Corduba was the capital of Hispania Ulterior during the Roman Republic and capital of Hispania Baetica during the Roman Empire; and when Qurubah was the capital of the Islamic Caliphate of Crdoba, including most of the Iberian Peninsula. It has been estimated that in the 10th century and beginning of the 11th century, Crdoba was the most populous city in the world, and during these centuries became the intellectual centre of Europe. Today it is a moderately-sized modern city; its population in 2011 was 330,033. The first trace of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC.