Coronary artery disease (CAD; also atherosclerotic heart disease) is the result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques [this plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol etc.] within the walls of the coronary arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. The deposition of the plaque in the lumen(free space in the artery for the flow of nutrients, oxygen etc.) of an artery causes narrowing of lumen of the artery by decreasing its diameter. It is sometimes also called coronary heart disease (CHD). CAD is the leading cause of death worldwide. While the symptoms and signs of coronary artery disease are noted in the advanced state of disease, most individuals with coronary artery disease show no evidence of disease for decades as the disease progresses before the first onset of symptoms, often a 'sudden' heart attack, finally arises.
Contributions by Ksheka, Jfdwolff, and 184.108.40.206.