The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the north, Germany to the west, Austria to the south and Slovakia to the east. Its capital and largest city, with 1.3 million inhabitants, is Prague. The Czech state, formerly known as Bohemia, was formed in the late 9th century as a small duchy around Prague, at that time under the dominance of the powerful Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power was transferred from Moravia to Bohemia, under the Pemyslids. In 1212 the duchy was raised to a kingdom and during the rule of Pemyslid dukes/kings and their successors, the Luxembourgs, the country reached its greatest territorial extent (13th14th century). During the Hussite wars the kingdom faced economic embargoes and crusades from all over Europe.
Contributions by Qertis, Pavel Vozenilek, and Wikimol.