A dictator is a ruler (e.g. absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power (sometimes, but not always, with military control or bribes) but not officially sanctioned by heritage, as in an absolute monarch. When other states call the head of state of a particular state a dictator, that state is called a dictatorship. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium). Like the term 'tyrant' (which was originally a respectable Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree 'autocrat', 'dictator' came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive, even abusive rule, yet had rare modern titular uses. In modern usage, the term 'dictator' is generally used to describe a leader who holds and/or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power, especially the power to make laws without effective restraint by a legislative assembly.