Egypt is a country in northern Africa, and forms a land bridge with Southwestern Asia. Egypt is an influential state in Africa and the Middle East. Egypt also is home to the longest river in the world, the Nile.

About Egypt

The area known as Egypt has been inhabited for over 12,000 years. By 3100 BC, the kingdom of Egypt formed and ruled until 1070 BC when Persia invaded and conquered the land. Then Egypt fell to the Romans, before being transferred to Islamic empire in 639 AD. Islamic rule lasted until the collapse of the state and subsequent conquering by Ottoman forces.

The Ottoman forces held on until Muhammad Ali grabbed power in 1805. His dynasty would last until 1950, even under the British protectorate system. In 1953, Gamal Abdel Nasser assumed power and launched a series of reforms, including the nationalization of of the Suez Canal. The nationalization would lead to the Suez Crisis. He oversaw the Six Days War, but died a few days later.

His successor would be Anwar Sadat. Sadat launch an economic reform policy and brutally repressed opposition. He would spearhead the October War in 1973, which brought in a UN mandated cease fire that would lead to the reclamation of the Sinai Peninsula and a peace treaty in 1979. He was assassinated in office in 1981.

The last president was Hosni Mubarak. He led Egypt for the last 29 years to a greater economic prosperity; however he repressed democracy and democratic reforms. On February 11, 2011, he resigned from office giving government control to the High Council of Armed Forces

Egypt's economy is based around agriculture, tourism and a growing IT market. Because only a small section of the country is hospitable, the Nile delta, Egypt's economy is constrained. Further hampering Egypt's growth efforts is a booming population with an underfunded education system.

Egypt is made up of a "multi party democratic system," although in reality this is not the case. The president is not elected, but has succeeded to power following an assassination. Many parties, particularly ones based on religion, are banned. Furthermore, the president has dictatorial powers. The government is supported by a powerful military, that is not subject to business laws.

Egypt is made up overwhelmingly of Egyptians. There are Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Palestinians and Iraqis living as minorities within Egypt. The official language is Arabic. Religion in the area is made up of Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Islam is the de facto state religion, with 90% adherents. Christians in the area belong to the Copts, a unique Christian sector in the Egyptian region.

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