Euchre is a trick-taking card game most commonly played with four people in two partnerships with a deck of 24 standard playing cards. It is the game responsible for introducing the joker into modern packs; this was invented around 1860 to act as a top trump or best bower. It is believed to be closely related to the French game cart that was popularized in the United States by the Cornish and Pennsylvania Dutch, and to the seventeenth-century game of bad repute Loo. It may be sometimes referred to as Knock Euchre to distinguish it from Bid Euchre. Euchre appears to have been introduced into the United States by the early German settlers of the state of Michigan, and from that state gradually to have been disseminated throughout the nation.