HypnoBirthing consists of a series of relaxation techniques used to help laboring mothers decrease pain and emotion stress during childbirth, without the use of drugs. HypnoBirthing is a form of self-hypnosis used primarily during an unmedicated vagina delivery. The practice of HypnoBirthing has its roots in the 1944 work of Grantly Dick-Read, M.D., an English obstetrician. His book, Childbirth Without Fear, advocates HypnoBirthing as a way for women to overcome what he refers to as 'Fear-Tension-Pain Syndrome,' a combination of psychological factors that arise during labor. Dick-Read hypothesized that this syndrome caused a decrease in blood flow from non-essential organs, including the uterus, as the body rerouted its resources toward the extremeties in preparation for a fight-or-flight response. Currently, the most prevalent source of information about HypnoBirthing is the HypnoBirthing Institute, founded in New Hampshire by Marie Mongan in 1989.