"Kurdistan (Kurdish: ههرێمی کوردستان Herêmî Kurdistan; Arabic: إقليم كردستان العراق Iqlīm Kurdistān Al-‘Irāq), also known as the Kurdistan Region or Iraqi Kurdistan, is an autonomous region of northern Iraq. It borders Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria to the west and the rest of Iraq to the south. The regional capital is Arbil, known in Kurdish as Hewlêr. (The word Hewlêr is a metathesis of the non-Semitic name Arbel.) The region is officially governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government.
The establishment of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq dates back to the March 1970 autonomy agreement between the Kurdish opposition and the Iraqi government after years of heavy fighting. The agreement however failed to be implemented and by 1974 Northern Iraq plunged into another round of bloody conflict between the Kurds and the Arab-dominated government of Iraq."