Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (25 December 1642 - 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 - 31 March 1727]) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, who has been 'considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived.' His monograph Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution.
Contributions by Heron, Pizza Puzzle, and Solipsist.