James Buchanan, Jr. (April 23, 1791 June 1, 1868) was the 15th President of the United States. He is the only president from Pennsylvania, the only president who remained a lifelong bachelor, and the last president born in the 18th century. He represented Pennsylvania in the U.S. House of Representatives and later the Senate and served as Minister to Russia under President Andrew Jackson. He was also Secretary of State under President James K. Polk. After he turned down an offer for an appointment to the Supreme Court, President Franklin Pierce appointed him minister to the Court of St. James's, in which capacity he helped draft the controversial Ostend Manifesto. Buchanan was nominated in the 1856 election. Throughout most of Franklin Pierce's term he was stationed in London as a minister to the Court of St. James's and therefore was not caught up in the crossfire of sectional politics that dominated the country.
Contributions by Rjensen, Jengod, and Minesweeper.