The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were a tribe living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula long before it became the Roman province of Lusitania (most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca). They spoke the Lusitanian language, an Indo-European language which might have been a form of Celtic or influenced by Celtic. Modern Portuguese people see the Lusitanians as their ancestors. The most notable Lusitanian was Viriathus. Some modern authors consider them to be indigenous and initially dominated by the Celts, before gaining full independence from them. Alternatively, archeologist Scarlat Lambrino proposed that they were originally a tribal group of Celtic origin related to the Lusones of Saefs origin. Diodorus Siculus considered the Lusitanians a Celtic people: "Those who are called Lusitanians are the bravest of all Cimbri". Strabo differentiated the Lusitanians from the "Iberian" tribes.
Contributions by PedroPVZ, The Ogre, and Pasquale.