Luxembourg, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland ('good country') in the south. Luxembourg has a population of 512,353 (as of February 2011) in an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi). A representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by a grand duke and is the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy. Luxembourg is one of the world's most developed countries, with an advanced economy and the world's second highest GDP (PPP) per capita, according to the IMF. Its historic and strategic importance dates back to its founding as a Roman era fortress and Frankish count's castle site in the Early Middle Ages.
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