The martini is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth, and garnished with an olive or a lemon twist. Over the years, the martini has become one of the best-known mixed alcoholic beverages. H. L. Mencken called the martini the only American invention as perfect as the sonnet and E. B. White called it the elixir of quietude. Pouring all ingredients into a mixing glass with ice cubes, the ingredients are mixed then strained and served straight up (without ice) in a chilled cocktail glass and garnished with either a green olive or a twist of lemon (a strip of the peel, usually squeezed or twisted to express volatile oils onto the surface of the drink). Although there are many variations, in modern practice the standard martini is a mix of gin coupled with dry vermouth usually in a five-to-one ratio. Shaker mixing is common due to influences of popular culture, notably the fictional spy James Bond, who sometimes asked for his vodka martini to be shaken, not stirred. However, stirring has a long history. Harry Craddock's Savoy Cocktail Book (1930) prescribes stirring for all its martini recipes. Somerset Maugham's opinion was that a Martini should always be stirred, not shaken,
Contributions by Hayford Peirce, BradGad, and Mzajac.