Nizhny Novgorod, colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is the fifth largest city in Russia with a population of 1,250,615. From 1932 to 1990, the city was known as Gorky, after the writer Maxim Gorky who was born there. The city is an important economic, transport and cultural center of the Russian Federation. It is the economic and cultural center of the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and also the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and Volga Federal District. After the destruction of the Mordvin Inzor Obram, a hillfort named Obran Osh (Ashli) at the site of future stone Kremlin in 1220, a small Russian wooden hillfort was founded by Grand Duke Yury II in 1221. Located at the confluence of two most important rivers of his principality, the Volga (Mordvin 'Rav' or 'Rava'), and the Oka, and Obran Osh was renamed Nizhny Novgorod.
Contributions by Gnomz007, Ghirlandajo, and Vmenkov.