Obstetrics and gynaecology (or obstetrics and gynecology; often abbreviated to OB/GYN, OBG, O&G or Obs & Gynae) are the two surgical_medical specialties dealing with the female reproductive organs in their pregnant and non-pregnant state, respectively, and as such are often combined to form a single medical specialty and postgraduate training programme. This combined training prepares the practising OB/GYN to be adept at the surgical management of the entire scope of clinical pathology involving female reproductive organs, and to provide care for both pregnant and non-pregnant patients. In veterinary medicine, theriogenology is more commonly used term that also includes andrology. The training for physicians in this field is quite long: in Australia, for example, the residency training period is among the longest at six years, matched only by neurosurgery and maxillofacial surgery. In the UK, training lasts seven years. In the United States, four years in residency is required.
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