Orenburg is a transcontinental city on the Ural River and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia. It lies 1,478 kilometers (918 mi) southeast of Moscow, very close to the border with Kazakhstan. Population: 546,987 (2010 Census preliminary results); 549,361 (2002 Census); 546,501 (1989 Census). The highest point is at 154.4 m. As of 2012, the mayor of the city is Yury Mishcheryakov. The Russian Empire began plans for the expansion into Asia by construction of an eastern frontier fortress town in the southern Ural region to be named Orenburg in 1734. The colonists originally founded a settlement in 1735 at the confluence of the Ural River with the Or River. The town's name meant 'fortress near the Or,' as Burg is German for fortress. This settlement changed its name in 1739 to Orsk.
Contributions by Ezhiki, Kandalash, and Olesya Markovskaya.