The Paliyan, or Palaiyar or Pazhaiyarare are Adivasi Dravidian people living in the South Western Ghats montane rain forests in South India, especially in Tamilnadu and Kerala. They are traditional nomadic hunter-gatherers, honey hunters and foragers. Yams are their major food source. In the early part of the 20th century the Paliyans dressed scantily and lived in rock crevices and caves. Most have now have transformed to traders of forest products, food cultivators and beekeepers. Some work intermittently as wage laborers, mostly on plantations. They are included in the List of Scheduled Tribes in India. "Thurston,(1909) quoting from the writing of Rev. F. Dahman.(1908) describes Palians as nomadic tribe, who for the most part rove in small parties through the jungle clad gorges (Sholas) that fringe the upper Palnis plateau.
Contributions by Marcus334, Peter M. Gardner, and Vdakshina.