Paratyphoid fevers are a group of enteric illnesses caused by serotypic strains of the Salmonella genus of bacteria, S. Paratyphi. There are three serovars of the species of S. enterica that cause paratyphoid: S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B (S. schottmuelleri and S. pullorum), and S. Paratyphi C (S. hirschfeldii). They are transmitted by means of contaminated water or food. The paratyphoid bears similarities with typhoid fever, and the two are referred to by the common name enteric fever. The course of paratyphoid is more benign. Factors outside the household like unclean food from street vendors and flooding help distribute the disease from person to person. Because of poverty and poor hygiene and sanitary conditions the disease is more common in less-industrialized countries, principally owing to the problem of unsafe drinking-water, inadequate sewage disposal and flooding.
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