The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations characterized by Calvinist doctrines, among others. They are descended from the Swiss Reformation inaugurated by Huldrych Zwingli but developed more coherently by Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger and especially John Calvin. In the 16th century, the movement spread to most of Europe, aligning with national governments in most cases, though several of these national or specific language-based churches later expanded to worldwide denominations. There are now many different reformed churches: a 1999 survey found 746 Reformed denominations worldwide. The first Reformed churches were established in Europe after 1519 and were part of the Protestant Reformation. Reformed doctrine is expressed in various confessions. A few confessions are shared by many denominations. Different denominations use different confessions, usually based on historical reasons.