Rogaine (now branded as Regaine outside the U.S.) is the brand name for minoxidil, when used as a topical drug to treat male pattern baldness. The solution is applied to the scalp daily to stimulate hair growth and help prevent hair loss. It is available over-the-counter (OTC) in the U.S. in a 2% minoxidil solution and also as a 5% minoxidil solution (Rogaine Extra Strength for Men). While the 2% solution can be used by either gender, the 5% solution is recommended for use by men only. Clinical studies of the effectiveness of topical minoxidil have shown both a slowing of hair loss and some regrowth of hair in some (but not all) patients. These studies also show that these measurable changes disappear fairly rapidly (within one to two years) after discontinuation of treatment. In 2006 Rogaine Foam was released. Prior to the foam, Rogaine came only in liquid form. The foam is meant to allow for better and easier application with fewer side effects.