Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. It is spoken by around 6.2 million people in India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal, although most of its speakers live in India, in the states of Jharkhand, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura, and West Bengal. The language has its own script, known as Ol Chiki. The following brief grammatical sketch is based on Ghosh 2008. It does not purport to give a full account of the language's grammar but rather give an impression of the structure of the language. Santali has 21 consonants, not counting the 10 aspirated stops which occur almost only in Indic loanwords and are given in parentheses in the table below. In native words, the opposition between voiceless and voiced stops is neutralized in word-final position. A typical Munda feature is that word-final stops are "checked", i. e. glottalized and unreleased. Santali has eight non-nasal and six nasal vowels. There are numerous diphthongs.
Contributions by WeepingElf, Kwamikagami, and Djembayz.