The Tonkawa are a Native American people indigenous to present-day Oklahoma and Texas. They once spoke the now-extinct Tonkawa language believed to have been a language isolate not related to any other indigenous tongues. They are enrolled in the federally recognized tribe Tonkawa Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. In the 15th century, the Tonkawa Tribe probably numbered around 5,000 with their numbers diminishing to around 1,600 by the late 17th century due to disease and warring with other tribes, most notably the Apache. By 1921, only 34 tribal members remained but their numbers have since recovered to close to 600, most of whom live in Oklahoma.
Contributions by Uyvsdi, Ish ishwar, and Parkwells.