The Tubu or Toubou are an ethnic group that live mainly in northern Chad, but also in southern Libya, northeastern Niger and northwestern Sudan. They speak Tedaga, in the Saharan subfamily of the Nilo-Saharan language family. The majority of Toubou live in the north of Chad around the Tibesti mountains (Old Tebu: "Rocky Mountains," whence the Toubou's own name.) Numbering roughly 350,000, they are mostly Muslim. Most Toubou are herders and nomads, though many are now semi-nomadic. Their society is clan-based, with each clan having certain oases, pastures and wells. They are divided in two closely associated people, the Teda and the Daza. Many of Chad's leaders have been Toubou, including presidents Goukouni Oueddei and Hissene Habre. Toubou life centers on their livestock (their major source of wealth and sustenance) and on the scattered oases where they or their herders cultivate dates and grain.
Contributions by Aldux, Lothar von Richthofen, and MLauba.