About Tundra

In physical geography, tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian from the Kildin Sami word tndr 'uplands', 'treeless mountain tract'. There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra. In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline. Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt. The word 'tundra' usually refers only to the areas where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. (It may also refer to the treeless plain in general, so that northern Spmi would be included.) Permafrost tundra includes vast areas of northern Russia and Canada.

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