The Vaccaei or 'Vaccei' were a pre-Roman Celtic people of Spain which inhabited the sedimentary plains of the central Duero valley, in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania. The Vaccaei were probably largely of Celtic descent. Their name may be derived from the Celtic word vacos meaning a slayer since they were celebrated fighters;and perhaps related, like the celtiberian Belli to the Belgians, Bellovaci that entered the Peninsula and settled the main river high plains. They often acted in consort with their neighbours, the Celtiberi, suggesting they may have been part of the Celtiberian peoples. They had a strict egalitarian society practising land reform and communal food distribution. This society was part of an Hispano-Celtic substrate which explains the cultural, socio-economic, linguistic and ideological affinity of the Vaccaei, Celtiberians, Vettones, Lusitani, Cantabri, Astures and Callaeci.
Contributions by Jopsach, Jembana, and The Ogre.